Vitamins are organic compounds that the organism as an energy source, but for other vital functions are required, but the metabolism for the most part can not synthesize. You must, therefore, dietary exposure. Some vitamins are the body as a precursor (provitamin) fed by the body then converts into the Wirkform. It divides into the fat-soluble vitamins (lipophilic) and water soluble (hydrophilic) vitamins.
When different organisms are different substances as vitamins. For example, some pigs vitamin C 100 mg / kg body weight produce, people can do this because of the absence of L-oxidase Galactonolacton not. Thus vitamin C is not a vitamin for pigs.
Generally, only those for people as a vital substances called vitamins. But even among people for the necessary vitamins, there is an exception, which actually is not a vitamin. This exception is vitamin D. The body is indeed in a position to produce vitamin D, if it receives sufficient sunlight.
Water soluble vitamins:
Vitamin C, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3), Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), vitamin B6, biotin (vitamin B7, vitamin H), vitamin B9 (folic acid), vitamin B12
Water-soluble vitamins in the small bowel using carriers or receptors absorbed. While vitamin B2 by passive transport is taken, the absorption of vitamin B1, vitamin B12 and vitamin C active.
The water-soluble vitamins are precursors of coenzymes or prosthetischen groups of various enzymes.
The following table lists just a few examples of the occurrence and effects of vitamins called
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K
After reading an article by the Dutch physician Christiaan Eijkman employed the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk 1912 intensively with the isolation of the active ingredient of the vitamin deficiency disease Beri-Beri, a hitherto unexplained new disease, in Japan and appeared on Java. Eijkman was in a military hospital in Batavia observed that besides patients (prisoners) and also the staff of chickens in the backyard of the hospital the symptoms of the disease Beri-Beri (in German: Sheep Gang) showed.
Because the chickens were recently with the same white, milled rice fed as to patients and staff, rather than with brown rice. Beri-Beri was accompanied by paralysis and loss of hand strength. This disease occurs only when, after being in these European countries, rice husking machines were introduced. There was a deficiency disease is suspected. Casimir Funk isolated from rice bran, a substance, the deficiency disease could heal
Between 1920 and 1980 were today (2004) well-known vitamins purely represented the first time. For these vitamins are now well known chemical synthesis routes. Diseases as a result of vitamin deficiency symptoms, were only the beginning of the 20th Century recognized.
In 1913 the name of the vitamins with large letters of the alphabet by the American biochemist, Elmer McCollum Vermon introduced. Thus, there was a vitamin A, B, C and D. Then came the vitamins E and K added. In the analysis of the food, which contained vitamin B, it became apparent that this is more than a factor of several symptoms could off. Thus spoke the biologists of vitamin B1, B2, etc.
Vitamins task and function
Vitamins generally provide for the functioning of the metabolism. Your task is to regulate the recycling of nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and minerals, they are caring for their ex-or conversion and thus also serve energy. Vitamins strengthen the immune system and are essential for the establishment of cells, blood cells, bones and teeth. Each vitamin fulfills certain tasks. They are different in terms of their different effects.
The Polish biochemist Casimir Funk in 1912 was that all the vital substances contained NH2 group. He therefore coined the term "vitamin" (from the Latin vita for life and for amine nitrogen).
Subsequent studies showed, however, that by far not all vitamins are amines or other basic nitrogen atoms. Good examples are the vitamin A (retinol), a nitrogen-free, unsaturated alcohol, and vitamin C (ascorbic acid),
Besides the chemical structure, the name of the vitamin are also letters, combined with a number designation, and trivial names used are 13 vitamins essential vitamins as:
Vitamins are scientifically not chemically uniform group of substances. They are organic compounds, the biological processes in the human (and animal) organism regulate. Include vitamins, as well as the minerals and trace elements to the non energieliefernden nutrients by the body to preserve his life and his performance absolutely needed.
Because the vitamins are fairly complicated organic molecules that they come in inanimate nature does not. Vitamins must first of plants, bacteria or animals are formed. The man is, with few exceptions in certain vitamins which he himself can produce, on the dietary dependent. Vitamins are essential substances, which means that it helps to maintain health and performance of the human body are vital. Some vitamins are the body as a precursor (provitamin) fed, the only body in the corresponding transformed Wirkform
The letter designation for the vitamins:
Axerophtol vitamin A, retinol retinol
Vitamin B1 Thiamin aneurine
Lactoflavin vitamin B2, vitamin G Riboflavin
Vitamin B3 * Vitamin PP, Vitamin B5 ** Niacin
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid * Vitamin B3
Vitamin B6 Adermin, Pyridoxol pyridoxine, pyridoxal and Pyridoxamin
Vitamin B7 Vitamin H, Vitamin Bw I or biotin
Vitamin B9 vitamin Bc vitamin M or Folic acid
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin Erythrotin
Vitamin C ascorbic acid
Vitamin D Calciferol
Vitamin E Tocopherol
Vitamin K *** Phylloquinone and Menachinon